The section of the Earth that falls below the equator is known as the Southern Hemisphere.
You may be surprised to hear that just about every continent has a piece that falls in the Southern Hemisphere, and there are many islands and oceans there.
So, which countries are in the Southern Hemisphere?
Thirty-two countries are fully located in the southern hemisphere.
These countries, in addition to the island continent of Australia, are Zimbabwe, Zambia, Vanuatu, Uruguay, Tuvalu, Tanzania, South Africa, Solomon Islands, Seychelles, Samoa, Rwanda, Peru, Paraguay, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Nauru, Mozambique, Mauritius, Malawi, Madagascar, Lesotho, Fiji, Eswatini, East Timor, Comoros, Chile, Burundi, Botswana, Bolivia, Argentina, and Angola.
Table of Contents
Most of the Southern Hemisphere is covered by oceans, which account for 80% of its area.
Temperatures in the region are typically higher than those in the Northern Hemisphere, with the exception of Antarctica.
Severe storms and hurricanes in the Southern Hemisphere rotate clockwise. Mines, forest lands, and marine assets are all found in the region.
There are no land borders between Australia and the rest of the Southern Hemisphere. Tasmania, Australia, and a slew of small islands make up the majority of the continent’s 2.97 million square miles.
Australia is known as the “Island Continent” because it is surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
Rainforests, desert areas, coastal lowlands, and immense grasslands abound throughout this vast continent.
Depending on where you are in the country, you’ll get a distinct kind of climate.
A tropical climate can be found in the northern region, while a Mediterranean climate can be found in the southwest region, and a subtropical climate can be found in the southeast.
Australia is one of the world’s driest continents.
The continent of Africa has a total land area of approximately 11.7 million square kilometers. In Africa, the Equator divides the continent into two halves, the southern and northern halves.
The Southern Hemisphere encompasses around a third of Africa.
The southern section of the continent does have a moderate oceanic climate, whereas the area towards the equator has a warm climate.
Africa is home to a wide range of plant and animal species that now may be found across the entire globe.
Antarctica is located entirely in the Southern Hemisphere. South America has an approximate range of around 5.4 million square miles.
Antarctica is the world’s driest, windiest, and coldest continent, according to many scientists.
Almost all of Antarctica is believed to be encased in thick ice due to the region’s exceptionally low temperatures.
As much as 90% of the world’s ice can be found in Antarctica, according to a recent study.
There are few plants and animals on the continent, and severe weather makes it unsuitable for human habitation.
The Southern Hemisphere encompasses the vast majority of South America.
At 6.89 million square miles, this continent is made up of both a massive landmass and several offshore parts of the South Atlantic Ocean.
That continent is home to the world’s most diverse array of organisms.
How many oceans are there in the Southern Hemisphere?
Situated in Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, or Antarctic Ocean, is the world’s southernmost body of water.
If you’re looking for an ocean that’s both little and fully in the Southern Hemisphere, look no further.
It covers Antarctica but also touches the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
Most of the Indian Ocean’s 27.4 million square miles are found in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa lies to the west, Asia towards the north, with Australia toward the east.
In terms of temperature, the Indian Ocean tops all other oceans.
The Pacific Ocean has always been the world’s largest, with around half of its surface area located throughout the Southern Hemisphere.
In the southern hemisphere, the Pacific Ocean connects the Southern Ocean, Australia, and South America.
As the second-largest sea by volume on Earth, the Atlantic Ocean is thought to cover 41.1 million square miles.
The North and South Atlantic Oceans are divided by the Equator, as it crosses the Atlantic Ocean.
The Antarctic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean merge at the South Hemisphere’s South American, African, and subtropical Atlantic Oceans.
With an area of around 3,287,956 square miles and being wholly located in the Southern Hemisphere, Brazil is the largest country in the region.
Officially known as the Federative Republic of Brazil, this country is one of the world’s most culturally diverse due to its long history of migration and immigration.
Indonesia takes that title hands down, even though it’s not completely in the Southern Hemisphere. Located in Southeast Asia, the Republic of Indonesia is the country’s official name.
The country has an estimated population of 261 million, making it the most populated country in the Southern Hemisphere, with an area of just 735,358 square miles – 4.85 percent of which is water.
The capital and largest city of Indonesia is Jakarta.
The Indian, South Atlantic, and South Pacific waters have a few of the many territories in the Southern Hemisphere’s huge oceans.
Australia’s Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands (HIMI) and Jarvis Island’s unincorporated United States territory are just two examples of territories in the Southern Hemisphere.
South America is home to more than 800 million people, which is almost 10% of the world’s total population.
About 200 million people live in Brazil, the largest country in the Southern Hemisphere in terms of geographical area, and about 145 million people dwell on Java, the most populous island in the world.
At 267 million inhabitants, Indonesia is the Southern Hemisphere’s most populous country, approximately 30 million of whom reside above the Equator throughout the northerly regions.
This comprises most of North Maluku, Sulawesi, Borneo, and islands of Sumatra.
The remainder of the people dwell in the Southern Hemisphere. Because of the vastness of the Southern Hemisphere and the diversity in nations, the demographics here are equally vast and varied.
With approximately 230 million native speakers spread over eight nations, the majority of whom reside in Brazil, Portuguese is the most widely used language in the Southern Hemisphere.
Where are some of the most important economic and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere?
Sao Paulo, home of the B3 (stock exchange), and Sydney, home of the Australian Securities Exchange, are two of the most important monetary and retail capitals in the Southern Hemisphere.
Another is the Indonesian Stock Exchange situated in Jakarta, and two others are Johannesburg’s Stock Exchange headquarters and Buenos Aires, deemed as the oldest stock exchange headquarters in the region.
Australians live in one of the world’s wealthiest regions in the Southern Hemisphere with a nominal GDP per capita of $51,885 and an HDI (Human Development Index) of 0.944.
A per capita GDP of $38,675 as well as an HDI of 0.931 ranked New Zealand fourteenth globally in 2020.
A number of the world’s least developed countries sit in Oceania and Africa, with Burundi and Mozambique ranking the lowest on the HDI scale at 0.456 and 0.433, respectively.
New Zealanders and Australians enjoy a much higher standard of living than their counterparts in these two nations.
Which religions are common in the Southern Hemisphere?
Oceania, Australia, Southern Africa, and South America are home to the most Christians, with Indonesia and sections of southeastern Africa having the largest concentrations of Muslims.
Finally, the islands of Lombok, Fiji, Mauritius, and Bali with the largest concentrations of Hindus in the entire Southern Hemisphere.
What are the oldest inhabited areas in the Southern Hemisphere?
Since 669 CE, Indonesia’s Bogor has been home to the most ancient metropolis with a continuous residency in the region.
Ancient writings from Hindu kingdoms that once ruled the area give evidence of the area’s establishment in the 7th century.
Evidence suggests that Zanzibar, a Tanzanian archipelago island with 200,000 residents, may predate Bogor by several millennia, however, according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea that dates from the first century CE and mentions Menuthias island as a trading harbor off the coast of East Africa.
Located on Peru’s northern coast, the Nort Chico and Casma–Sechin cultures are among the most ancient in the South American region.
The construction of plazas, pyramids, and cities by these civilizations in the seaside river basins of northern Peru dates back to 3600 BC.